Publications

The Primary Aldosteronism Foundation maintains a list of salient publications. Topics range from pathogenesis to the implications of excess aldosterone. We regularly update the list with new topics, and new articles are added as they become public.

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Abstract/Summary:

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been reported to decrease after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictors for decreased GFR after adrenalectomy in patients with PA. The records of 187 patients (98 patients with PA and 89 with non-PA adrenal disease) who were followed up for at least 6 months after unilateral adrenalectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was investigated at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Preoperative risk factors for eGFR% decline at 1 month ([preoperative eGFR-eGFR at 1 month]/preoperative eGFR × 100) and postoperative CKD development were investigated. The eGFR decreased significantly at 1 month and remained stable in the PA group. However, there were no significant changes in eGFR in the non-PA group over the 6-month period. In the PA group, a high preoperative eGFR and high aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) were independently associated with eGFR% decline at 1 month. In patients with PA but without preoperative CKD (n = 68), a low preoperative eGFR and high ARR were independent risk factors for developing postoperative CKD. The best preoperative cut-off values of eGFR and ARR for predicting the development of postoperative CKD were ≤ 102 ml/min/1.73 m2 and ≥ 448 ng/dl:ng/ml/h, respectively. Renal function deteriorated significantly after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with PA. Clinicians must pay attention to postoperative renal function in PA patients at elevated risk of developing decreased kidney function.

Authors: Il Young Kim, In Seong Park, Min Jeong Kim, Miyeun Han, Harin Rhee, Eun Young Seong, Dong Won Lee, Soo Bong Lee, Ihm Soo Kwak, Sang Heon Song, Hyun Chul Chung
Keywords: adrenalectomy, chronic kidney disease, glomerular filtration rate, renal insufficiency
DOI Number: 10.1007/s11255-018-1887-9
Publication Year: 2018

Abstract/Summary:

Primary aldosteronism (PA) may present at younger age and may thus complicate pregnancy. Our aim was to identify female patients in whom PA was diagnosed after pregnancy complicated with hypertension and to analyze possible hypertension-related complications during pregnancy. We performed retrospective analysis of female patients with PA diagnosed and treated at our Department who were pregnant before the diagnosis of PA. We found 14 patients with PA (age at diagnosis 32.2 ± 4.2 years, hypertension duration 5.4 ± 3.6 years) suffering from hypertension 3 (IQR 0, 4) years before pregnancy (6 patients had hypertension diagnosed during pregnancy). Three subjects were pregnant twice, and 1 patient had been pregnant three times before the final diagnosis of PA was made. Ten subjects delivered by Caesarean section (in 3 cases due to early-onset preeclampsia and 2 subjects due to significantly increased blood pressure), and 9 cases spontaneously (1 subject complicated twice due to late-onset preeclampsia). Preterm delivery occurred in 5 cases – the earliest one in the sixth month of gestation. Subsequent diagnosis of PA (sometimes with a long delay up to a maximum of 12 years) was made on the basis of significantly low potassium values (2.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L; 2 subjects even suffered from muscle cramps) and hypertension (mostly moderate), elevated plasma/serum aldosterone (54.1 ± 20.2 ng/dL) and suppressed plasma renin activity (0.4 ± 0.2 ng/mL/h) or plasma renin (1.9 ± 1.6 ng/L). Thirteen subjects underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy (in all but 2 cases, diagnosis of a large cortical adenoma [16 ± 5.9 mm] was made), and 1 subject was classified with bilateral hyperplasia according to adrenal venous sampling. Operation normalized BP in 10 subjects and improved BP control in the remaining 3 subjects. Two patients became pregnant after adrenalectomy, and their pregnancies were uneventful. PA is associated with a high rate of pregnancy-related complications. The most frequent complication is preeclampsia, in some cases leading to preterm delivery. The optimal prevention of these complications is early diagnosis of PA, and in these particular hypertensive cases, the awareness of hypokalemia.

Authors: Tomáš Zelinka, Ondřej Petrák, Ján Rosa, Robert Holaj, Branislav Štrauch, Jiří Widimský Jr
Keywords: pregnancy, preeclampsia, preterm delivery
DOI Number: 10.1159/000506287
Publication Year: 2020

Abstract/Summary:

Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduce LDL cholesterol levels with subsequent reductions in cardiovascular morbidity. Elevated aldosterone levels are also associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. There are currently no published data on the impact of PCSK9 inhibitor monotherapy on the secretion of aldosterone. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of monotherapy with the PSCK9 inhibitor evolocumab on the lipid profile and aldosterone secretion level in high-risk cardiovascular patients. Lipid profile, sodium, potassium, aldosterone, cortisol, plasma renin activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were analyzed at baseline and after 3 months of evolocumab therapy. Each participant underwent a 250 mcg ACTH stimulation test upon study entry. Eight women and seven men were included in the study. Their median total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B100, and baseline and stimulated aldosterone levels were significantly lower after 3 months of evolocumab therapy. These heretofore unreported findings indicate that reductions in unstimulated and stimulated aldosterone secretion under evolocumab therapy could be associated with reductions in cardiovascular events, a possibility that warrants further investigation.

Authors: Elena Izkhakov, Yacov Shacham, Merav Serebro, Iris Yaish, Yonit Marcus, Gabi Shefer, Karen Tordjman, Yona Greenman, Naftali Stern, Tomer Ziv-Baran
Keywords: PCSK9 inhibitors, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
DOI Number: 10.3390/jcm10112504
Publication Year: 2021

Abstract/Summary:

The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical and biochemical differences between patients with low-renin and high-renin primary arterial hypertension (AH), mainly in reference to serum lipids, and to identify factors determining lipid concentrations. In untreated patients with AH stage 1 we measured plasma renin activity (PRA) and subdivided the group into low-renin (PRA < 0.65 ng/mL/h) and high-renin (PRA ⩾ 0.65 ng/mL/h) AH. We compared office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, serum aldosterone, lipids and selected biochemical parameters between subgroups. Factors determining lipid concentration in both subgroups were assessed in regression analysis. Higher serum levels of total and LDL-C characterized high-renin subjects, but the association between LDL-C level and PRA existed only in low-renin primary AH.

Authors: Tomasz Pizoń, Marek Rajzer, Wiktoria Wojciechowska, Małgorzata Wach-Pizoń, Tomasz Drożdż, Katarzyna Wróbel, Krystian Gruszka, Marta Rojek, Tomasz Kameczura, Artur Jurczyszyn, Janusz Kąkol, Danuta Czarnecka
Keywords: lipids, renin, plasma renin activity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
DOI Number: 10.1177/1470320318810022
Publication Year: 2018

Abstract/Summary:

Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which is correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear. Several studies have suggested that aldosterone levels are elevated with obesity and may represent a link between obesity and hypertension. In addition to hypertension, obese patients typically have dyslipidemia, including elevated serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL, which functions to transport triglycerides from the liver to peripheral tissues, has been demonstrated to stimulate aldosterone production. Recent studies suggest that the signaling pathways activated by VLDL are similar to those utilized by AngII. Thus, VLDL increases cytosolic calcium levels and stimulates phospholipase D (PLD) activity to result in the induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression. These effects seem to be mediated by the ability of VLDL to increase the phosphorylation (activation) of their regulatory transcription factors, such as the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. Thus, research into the pathways by which VLDL stimulates aldosterone production may identify novel targets for the development of therapies for the treatment of hypertension, particularly those associated with obesity, and other aldosterone-modulated pathologies.

Authors: Ying-Ying Tsai , William E Rainey , Wendy B Bollag
Keywords: adrenal cortex, phosphorylation, intracellular signaling, very low-density lipoprotein, obesity, phospholipase, steroidogenesis
DOI Number: 10.1530/JOE-16-0237
Publication Year: 2017

Abstract/Summary:

Serum aldosterone is a causative factor for various metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major cholesterol source for aldosterone steroidogenesis; however, the effect of oxidative modification of LDL on aldosterone release is not known. We studied the effect of hypochlorite-oxidized LDL (oxLDL) on adrenal aldosterone secretion. LDL (native LDL (natLDL)) was obtained from healthy volunteers and oxidatively modified in vitro. NCI-H295R cells were stimulated with natLDL and oxLDL, and the aldosterone release was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Molecular changes were studied with western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR analysis. NatLDL and oxLDL caused dose-dependent increase in aldosterone release up to threefold. However, the stimulatory effects of modified LDL on aldosterone secretion decreased with increasing degree of LDL oxidation. 24-h incubations with natLDL, mild- and medium-oxidized LDL sensitized the adrenocortical cells to subsequent angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulations by 2.9-, 2.8-, and 2.5-folds, respectively. Heavily oxidized LDL did not sensitize the cells to Ang II stimulations to a similar extent. At the molecular level, the ERK pathway was activated within a minute by both natLDL and oxLDL; however, oxLDL showed a stronger (2.75-fold at 1 and 15 min) and longer (15 min) activation of ERK than natLDL (twofold). This study demonstrates the following: (i) both natLDL and hypochlorite-oxidized LDL utilize ERK pathway to mediate aldosterone release; (ii) mildly oxidized LDL sensitizes the adrenocortical cells to further stimulations by Ang II similar to natLDL that may have a role in pathological processes; (iii) extensive LDL oxidation counteracts adrenocortical aldosterone release.

Authors: Ishrath Ansurudeen, Jens Pietzsch, Juergen Graessler, Monika Ehrhart-Bornstein, Sarama Saha, Stefan R. Bornstein, Steffi Kopprasch
Keywords: metabolism, lipoproteins, LDL, oxidants, steroids, low-density lipoproteins
DOI Number: 10.1038/ajh.2010.118
Publication Year: 2010

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The Primary Aldosteronism Foundation is a registered 501(c)(3) public charity. Donations are tax deductible in the US.

©2021 Primary Aldosteronism Foundation

The Primary Aldosteronism Foundation is a registered 501(c)(3) public charity. Donations are tax deductible in the US.