Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common, but frequently overlooked, cause of arterial hypertension and excess cardiovascular events, particularly atrial fibrillation. As timely diagnosis and treatment can provide a cure of hyperaldosteronism and hypertension, even when the latter is resistant to drug treatment, strategies to screen patients for PA early with a simplified diagnostic algorithm are justified. They can be particularly beneficial in some subgroups of hypertensive patients, as those who are at highest cardiovascular risk. However, identification of the surgically curable cases of PA and achievement of optimal results require subtyping with adrenal vein sampling, which, as it is technically challenging and currently performed only in tertiary referral centers, represents the bottleneck in the work-up of PA. Measures aimed at improving the clinical use of adrenal vein sampling and at developing alternative techniques for subtyping, alongside recommendations for drug treatment, including new development in the field, and for follow-up are discussed.
Authors: Gian Paolo Rossi
Keywords: adrenal vein sampling, diagnosis, endocrine hypertension, hyperaldosteronism, subtypes, primary aldosteronism
DOI Number: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.057 Publication Year: 2019
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