Hyperparathyroidism and the Calcium Paradox of Aldosteronism


Aldosteronism may account for oxi/nitrosative stress, a proinflammatory phenotype, and wasting in congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that aldosterone/1% NaCl treatment (ALDOST) in rats enhances Ca2+ and Mg2+ excretion and leads to systemic effects, including bone loss. At 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of ALDOST, we monitored Ca2+ and Mg2+ excretion, ionized [Ca2+]o and [Mg2+]o, parathyroid hormone and α1-antiproteinase activity in plasma, bone mineral density, bone strength, Ca2+ and Mg2+ content in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ventricular tissue, and lymphocyte H2O2 production. A separate group received spironolactone (Spiro), an aldosterone receptor antagonist. Age- and gender-matched unoperated and untreated rats served as controls. ALDOST induced a marked (P<0.05) and persistent rise in urinary and fecal Ca2+ and Mg2+ excretion, a progressive reduction (P<0.05) in [Ca2+]o and [Mg2+]o, and an elevation in parathyroid hormone (P<0.05) with a fall (P<0.05) in bone mineral density and strength. An early, sustained increase (P<0.05) in PBMC Ca2+ and Mg2+ was found, together with an increase (P<0.05) in tissue Ca2+. Plasma α1-antiproteinase activity was reduced (P<0.05), whereas lymphocyte H2O2 production was increased (P<0.05) at all time points. Spiro cotreatment attenuated (P<0.05) urinary and fecal Ca2+ and Mg2+ excretion, prevented the fall in [Ca2+]o and [Mg2+]o, rescued bone mineral density and strength, and prevented Ca2+ overloading of PBMCs and cardiomyocytes. In aldosteronism, Ca2+ and Mg2+ losses lead to a fall in [Ca2+]o and [Mg2+]o with secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone resorption. Ca2+ overloading of PBMCs and cardiac tissue leads to oxi/nitrosative stress and a proinflammatory phenotype.

Authors: Vikram S. Chhokar, Yao Sun, Syamal K. Bhattacharya, Robert A. Ahokas, Linda K. Myers, Zhiqing Xing, Richard A. Smith, Ivan C. Gerling, Karl T. Weber
Keywords: parathyroid, calcium, magnesium, bone mineral density
DOI Number: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000155621.10213.06      Publication Year: 2005

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