Renin-independent aldosterone production is a prevalent phenotype that is diagnosed as primary aldosteronism when severe in magnitude, but is largely unrecognized when milder in severity. Renin-independent aldosterone production can be detected in normotensive and hypertensive individuals, and the magnitude of this biochemical phenotype parallels the magnitude of blood pressure elevation, the risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and the likelihood and magnitude of blood pressure reduction with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy. Expansion of the indications to screen for primary aldosteronism, combined with the use of a pathophysiology-based approach that emphasizes inappropriate aldosterone production in the context of renin suppression, will substantially increase the diagnostic and therapeutic yields for primary aldosteronism. The landscape of primary aldosteronism has evolved to recognize that it is a prevalent syndrome of renin-independent aldosterone production that contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Expanding screening indications and simplifying the diagnostic approach will enable implementation of targeted treatment for primary aldosteronism.

Authors: Anand Vaidya, Robert M Carey
Keywords: adrenal, aldosterone, hypertension, primary aldosteronism, renin
DOI Number: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa606      Publication Year: 2020

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