In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. The objective of the study was to estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein (HDL), low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. Sodium reduction from an average high usual sodium intake level (201 mmol/day) to an average level of 66 mmol/day, which is below the recommended upper level of 100 mmol/day (5.8 g salt), resulted in a decrease in SBP/DBP of 1/0 mmHg in white participants with normotension and a decrease in SBP/DBP of 5.5/2.9 mmHg in white participants with hypertension. A few studies showed that these effects in black and Asian populations were greater. The effects on hormones and lipids were similar in people with normotension and hypertension. Renin increased 1.60 ng/mL/hour (55%); aldosterone increased 97.81 pg/mL (127%); adrenalin increased 7.55 pg/mL (14%); noradrenaline increased 63.56 pg/mL: (27%); cholesterol increased 5.59 mg/dL (2.9%); triglyceride increased 7.04 mg/dL (6.3%).

Authors: Niels Albert Graudal, Thorbjorn Hubeck-Graudal, Gesche Jurgens
Keywords: sodium, blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, triglyceride
DOI Number: 10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub4      Publication Year: 2017

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