Cardiovascular Health After Menopause Transition, Pregnancy Disorders, and Other Gynecologic Conditions: a Consensus Document from European Cardiologists, Gynecologists, and Endocrinologists


Women undergo important changes in sex hormones throughout their lifetime that can impact cardiovascular disease risk. Whereas the traditional cardiovascular risk factors dominate in older age, there are several female-specific risk factors and inflammatory risk variables that influence a woman’s risk at younger and middle age. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and gestational diabetes are associated with a higher risk in younger women. Menopause transition has an additional adverse effect to ageing that may demand specific attention to ensure optimal cardiovascular risk profile and quality of life. In this position paper, we provide an update of gynecological and obstetric conditions that interact with cardiovascular risk in women. Practice points for clinical use are given according to the latest standards from various related disciplines.

Authors: Angela H E M Maas, Giuseppe Rosano, Renata Cifkova, Alaide Chieffo, Dorenda van Dijken, Haitham Hamoda, Vijay Kunadian, Ellen Laan, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Kate Maclaran, Nick Panay, John C Stevenson, Mick van Trotsenburg, Peter Collins
Keywords: pregnancy, menopause, gender
DOI Number: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1044      Publication Year: 2021

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