The beneficial effects of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists (MRAs) for various kidney diseases are established. However, the underlying mechanisms of kidney injury induced by MR activation remain to be elucidated. We recently reported aldosterone-induced enhancement of proteoglycan expression in mitral valve interstitial cells and its association with fibromyxomatous valvular disorder. As the expression of certain proteoglycans is elevated in several kidney diseases, we hypothesized that proteoglycans mediate kidney injury in the context of aldosterone/MR pathway activation. We evaluated the proteoglycan expression and tissue injury in the kidney and isolated glomeruli of uninephrectomy/aldosterone/salt (NAS) mice. The MRA eplerenone was administered to assess the role of the MR pathway. We investigated the direct effects of biglycan, one of the proteoglycans, on macrophages using isolated macrophages. The kidney samples from NAS-treated mice showed enhanced fibrosis and increased expression of biglycan accompanying glomerular macrophage infiltration and enhanced expression of TNF-α, iNOS, Nox2, CCL3 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 3), and phosphorylated NF-κB. Eplerenone blunted these changes. Purified biglycan stimulated macrophages to express TNF-α, iNOS, Nox2, and CCL3. This was prevented by a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or NF-κB inhibitor, indicating that biglycan stimulation is dependent on the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. We identified the proteoglycan biglycan as a novel target of MR involved in MR-induced glomerular injury and macrophage infiltration via a biglycan/TLR4/NF-κB/CCL3 cascade.
Authors: Toshifumi Nakamura, Benjamin Bonnard, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Frédéric Jaisser, Natalia López-Andrés
Keywords: glomerular injury
DOI Number: 10.3390/ijms23126680 Publication Year: 2022
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