Adrenal Vein Sampling: Technique and Protocol, a Systematic Review


Primary aldosteronism is the leading cause of secondary hypertension worldwide. Its deleterious effects outstrip those due to blood pressure elevation alone. An essential part of the work-up of a patient with primary aldosteronism is determining if aldosterone production is unilateral or bilateral. With the former, surgery offers a potential cure and better overall outcomes. Adrenal vein sampling is considered the most reliable method to determine whether production is unilateral or bilateral. Sampling may be non-diagnostic when the vein cannot be properly cannulated. But with proper knowledge and experience as well as the utilization of certain techniques, procedure success can be high. Multiple protocols exist; their rationale and drawbacks are reviewed here. This article will give the reader an overview of techniques for improving procedural success as well as background, rationale and evidence to guide one in choosing the appropriate procedural and interpretation protocol.

Authors: Keith B Quencer
Keywords: adrenal vein sampling, work-up
DOI Number: 10.1186/s42155-021-00220-y      Publication Year: 2021

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