PA is the most frequent form of secondary hypertension, with a prevalence that increases with the severity of hypertension. The wide variation of the reported PA prevalence is due to different study design and population. Very few data derive from well designed prospective study. Additional problems in the interpretation of study results are the different diagnostic cut-off used in various centers and the low diffusion of the adrenal vein sampling, that has a central role in the PA diagnosis.
Resistant hypertension (RH) is a condition of insufficient BP control, despite appropriate lifestyle measures and treatment with at least 3 drugs at full dose, including a diuretic, in patients whose adherence to therapy has been confirmed. The primary aim of our study is define prospectively the prevalence of PA in RH.
Moreover, emerging evidence supports the crucial role of elevated serum aldosterone in promoting cardiovascular disease, independently from high BP levels. Aldosterone improves oxidative stress, inflammation, impairs insulin metabolic signaling, reduced endothelial-mediated vasorelaxation and is associated to cardiovascular and renal abnormalities. However, current data on the contribution of PA on cardiometabolic complications have heterogeneous results.
The secondary outcome of our study is to investigate prospectively the association of PA with cardiometabolic complications in a cohort of patients with RH.